Apple designs, manufactures and markets personal computers, portable media players, mobile phones, computer software, computer hardware and peripherals. The Apple Store, which is a retail store owned and operated by Apple Inc.
Delegation ; Manager Recruitment ; Organizational Structure The concept of "span of control," also known as management ratio, refers to the number of subordinates controlled directly by a superior.
|Downloading prezi...||Overview[ edit ] In the hierarchical business organization of some time in the past it was not uncommon to see average spans of 1-to-4 or even less. That is, one manager supervised four employees on average.|
|Apple’s Corporate Culture – Advantages, Disadvantages, Recommendations||Secrecy Moderate combativeness Top-notch Excellence. Steve Jobs was known to fire employees who did not meet his expectations.|
It is a particularly important concept for small business owners to understand because small businesses often get into trouble when the founder ends up with too wide a span of control.
Span of control is a topic taught in management schools and widely employed in large organizations like the military, government agencies, and educational institutions.
When a small business owner's span of control becomes too large, it can limit the growth of his or her company. Even the best managers tend to lose their effectiveness when they spend all their time managing people and their issues and are unable to focus on long-term plans and competitive positioning for the business as a whole.
It arose from the assumption that managers have finite amounts of time, energy, and attention to devote to their jobs. In studies of British military leaders, Hamilton found that they could not effectively control more than three to six people directly.
These figures have been generally accepted as the "rule of thumb" for span of control ever since. More than a decade later, A. Graicumas illustrated the concept of span of control mathematically.
His research showed that the number of interactions between managers and their subordinates—and thus the amount of time managers spent on supervision—increased geometrically as the managers' span of control became larger.
It is important to note that all managers experience a decrease in effectiveness as their span of control exceeds the optimal level. In other words, the limitations implied by span of control are not shortcomings of certain individual managers but rather of managers in general.
In addition, it is important to understand that span of control refers only to direct reports, rather than to an entire corporate hierarchy. Even though a CEO may technically control hundreds of employees, his or her span of control would only include the department heads or functional managers who reported to the CEO directly.
After all, many of these people have started a business from the ground up and are wary of losing control over its operations. They thus choose to manage lots of people directly, rather than delegating tasks to middle managers, in an effort to continue being involved in key decisions as the business grows.
But this strategy can backfire, as Hendricks explained: Finding the optimal span involves balancing the relative advantages and disadvantages of retaining responsibility for decisions and delegating those decisions. In general, studies have shown that the larger the organization, the fewer people should report to the top person.
Managers should also have fewer direct reports if those subordinates interact with each other frequently. In this situation, the supervisor ends up managing both his or her relationship with the subordinates and the subordinates' relationships with one another.
Some other factors affecting the optimal span of control include whether workers perform tasks of a routine nature which might permit a broader span of control or of great variety and complexity which might require a narrower span of controland whether the overall business situation is stable which would indicate a broader span or dynamic which would require a narrower span.
Other situations in which a broader span of control might be possible include when the manager delegates effectively; when there are staff assistants to screen interactions between the manager and subordinates; when subordinates are competent, well-trained, and able to work independently; and when subordinates' goals are well-aligned with those of other workers and the organization.-Tall organizational structure.
Police officers Example: Apple inc. Pros: More efficient and organized.-Supervisors can spend more time on individuals.-Easier to develop group cohesiveness within the smaller group of employees Span of Management/Control Two types of Span of control.
Organizational Culture at Apple Inc Introduction Apple Inc. is a global computer manufacturing company that is going through majo r changes in its organizational culture and it’s organizational structure due to several events of the past few years.
-Tall organizational structure. Police officers Example: Apple inc. Pros: More efficient and organized.-Supervisors can spend more time on individuals.-Easier to develop group cohesiveness within the smaller group of employees Span of Management/Control Two types of Span of control.
Span of control is a topic taught in management schools and widely employed in large organizations like the military, government agencies, and educational institutions. A wide span of control potentially makes it harder to communicate (the article highlights the issues that might arise for Tim Cook in meetings) but gives those executives more .
Part A: Introduction to the Organization and the Organizational Design. Apple Inc. is an American multinational electronics and software company established by Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniak on April 1, , in Cupertino, California.