Structuralism and Semiotics Structuralism Structuralism is a way of thinking about the world which is predominantly concerned with the perceptions and description of structures. At its simplest, structuralism claims that the nature of every element in any given situation has no significance by itself, and in fact is determined by all the other elements involved in that situation. The full significance of any entity cannot be perceived unless and until it is integrated into the structure of which it forms a part Hawkes, p.
Methods employed[ edit ] Feminist scholarship has developed a variety of ways to unpack literature in order to understand its essence through a feminist lens.
Gynocriticism was introduced during the time of second wave feminism. The ultimate goal Essays on literary criticism any of these tools is to uncover and expose patriarchal underlying tensions within novels and interrogate the ways in which our basic literary assumptions about such novels are contingent on female subordination.
In this way, the accessibility of literature broadens to a far more inclusive and holistic population. Moreover, works that historically received little or no attention, given the historical constraints around female authorship in some cultures, are able to be heard in their original form and unabridged.
This makes a broader collection of literature for all readers insofar as all great works of literature are given exposure without bias towards a gender influenced system. The rise of decadent feminist literature in the s was meant to directly challenge the sexual politics of the patriarchy.
By employing a wide range of female sexual exploration and lesbian and queer identities by those like Rita Felski and Judith Bennet, women were able attract more attention about feminist topics in literature. It has also considered gender in the terms of Freudian and Lacanian psychoanalysisas part of the deconstruction of existing relations of power, and as a concrete political investment.
More specifically, modern feminist criticism deals with those issues related to the perceived intentional and unintentional patriarchal programming within key aspects of society including education, politics and the work force.
Beginning with the interrogation of male-centric literature that portrayed women in a demeaning and oppressed model, theorist such as Mary Ellman, Kate Millet and Germaine Greer challenged past imaginations of the feminine within literary scholarship.
Within second-wave feminism, three phases can be defined: During the feminine phase, female writers adhered to male values. By this time, scholars were not only interested in simply demarcating narratives of oppression but also creating a literary space for past, present and future female literary scholars to substantiate their experience in a genuine way that appreciates the aesthetic form of their works.
Additionally, Black literary feminist scholars began to emerge, in the post-Civil Rights era of the United States, as a response to the masculine-centric narratives of Black empowerments began to gain momentum over female voices.
An Anthology, edited by Cade is seen as essential to the rise of Black literary criticism and theory. The literary scholarship also included began with the perception of Black female writers being under received relative to their talent.
The Combahee River Collective released what is called one of the most famous pieces in Black literary scholarship known as "A Black Feminist Statement"which sought to prove that literary feminism was an important component to black female liberation.
This publication has become a staple of feminist criticism and has expanded the realm of publications considered to be feminist works, especially in the 19th century. The book specifically argues that women have largely been considered in two distinct categories by men in academia, monsters or angels.
Today, writers like Gloria E. During that same time, Deborah E. McDowell published New Directions for Black Feminist Criticism, which called for a more theoretical school of criticism versus the current writings, which she deemed overly practical.
As time moved forward, the theory began to disperse in ideology. Many decided to shift towards the nuanced psychological factors of the Black experience and further away from broad sweeping generalizations.
Others began to connect their works to the politics of lesbianism. Some decided to analyze the Black experience through their relationship to the Western world. Regardless, these scholars continue to employ a variety of methods to explore the identity of Black feminism in literature. Currently, several university scholars all employ the usage of literary feminism when critiquing texts.
The mainstreaming of this school has given academia an extremely useful tool in raising questions over the gender relationships within texts. Third wave feminism and feminist literary criticism is concerned more with the intersection of race and other feminist concerns.An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding appeared for the first time under this title in the edition of Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects.
Earlier it had been published several times, beginning in , under the title. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding appeared for the first time under this title in the edition of Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects.
Earlier it had been published several times, beginning in , under the title. Browse through Critical Essays on thousands of literary works to find resources for school projects and papers.
William Blake () A selective list of online literary criticism for the nineteenth-century English Romantic poet and artist William Blake, with links to reliable biographical and introductory material and signed, peer-reviewed, and scholarly literary criticism. Literary Theory "Literary theory" is the body of ideas and methods we use in the practical reading of literature.
By literary theory we refer not to the meaning of a work of literature but to the theories that reveal what literature can mean. Welcome to The Literature Network! We offer searchable online literature for the student, educator, or enthusiast.
To find the work you're looking for start by looking through the author index.