Arriving in his small office in Lisbon, the year-old tosses his jacket aside, leaving his shirt collar crooked. He looks a little tired from the many trips he's taken lately -- the world wants to know exactly how the experiment in Portugal is going. He adds his latest piece of mail to the mountain of papers on his desk. One gram of heroin, two grams of cocaine, 25 grams of marijuana leaves or five grams of hashish:
To be honest, I had kind of forgotten that the Universe was allowed to contain negative consequences for legalizing drugs. Not to try to convince my attending of anything — as the old saying goes, do not meddle in the affairs of attendings, because you are crunchy and taste good with ketchup — but just to figure out where exactly things stand.
Starting in the s, several states decriminalized possession of marijuana — that is, possession could not be penalized by jail time. It could still be penalized by fines and other smaller penalties, and manufacture and sale could still be punished by jail time.
Starting in the s, several states legalized medical marijuana. People with medical marijuana cards, which in many cases were laughably easy to get with or without good evidence of disease, were allowed to grow and use marijuana, despite concerns that some of this would end up on the illegal market.
Starting last week, Colorado legalized recreational use of marijuana, as well as cultivation and sale subject to heavy regulations. Washington will follow later this year, and other states will be placing measures on their ballots to do the same.
One should be able to evaluate to what degree marijuana use rose after these policy changes, and indeed, many people have tried — with greater or lesser levels of statistical sophistication.
The worst arguments in favor of this proposition are those like this CADCA paperwhich note that states with more liberal marijuana laws have higher rates of marijuana use among teenagers than states that do not. The proper counterspell to such nonsense is Reverse Causal Arrows — could it not be that states with more marijuana users are more likely to pass proposals liberalizing marijuana laws?
The states involved are places like Colorado, California, Washington, and Oregon. I think that speaks for itself. A slightly more sophisticated version — used by the DEA here — takes the teenage marijuana use in a state one year before legalization of medical marijuana and compares it to the teenage marijuana use in a state one or several years after such legalization.
They often find that it has increased, and blame the increase on the new laws. This falls victim to a different confounder — marijuana use has undergone some very large swings nationwide, so the rate of increase in medical marijuana states may be the same as the rate anywhere else.
Indeed, this is what was going on in California — its marijuana use actually rose slightly less than the national average. What we want is a study that compares the average marijuana use in a set of states before liberalization to the average marijuana use in the country as a whole, and then does the same after liberalization to see if the ratio has increased.
They survey thousand of high school seniors on marijuana use in seven states that decriminalize marijuana both before and for five years after the decriminalization, and find absolutely no sign of increased marijuana use in fact, there is a negative trend.
There is only a hint of some different results. Overall I think the evidence is pretty strong that decriminalization probably led to no increase in marijuana use among teens, and may at most have led to a small single-digit increase.
In practice, decriminalization does not affect the average user very much — even in states without decriminalization, marijuana possession very rarely leads to jail time. The next major milestone in cannabis history was the legalization of medical marijuana.
Other studies find pretty much the same. Indeed, for about ten years after medical marijuana legalization, the federal government kept on prosecuting marijuana users even when their use accorded with state laws, and many states had so few dispensaries that in reality not a whole lot of medical marijuana was being given out.
When we examined decriminalization, we found that the studies based on surveys of teens looked pretty good, but that the one study that examined outcomes — marijuana-related ER visits — was a lot less encouraging.
I have two theories.
First, maybe medical marijuana use and decriminalization increase use among adults only. Second, we know that medical marijuana has twice as much THC as street marijuana. Or the studies are wrong. Studies being wrong is always a pretty good bet. Nearly everyone who teaches in Colorado says there has been an explosion of marijuana-related problems since medical marijuana was legalized.Theories of Organized Crime Essay - Organized Crime is a complicated animal.
It is defined as “transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals, who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for monetary profit.” (FBI, ). Risk is the possibility of losing something of value. Values (such as physical health, social status, emotional well-being, or financial wealth) can be gained or lost when taking risk resulting from a given action or inaction, foreseen or unforeseen (planned or not planned).Risk can also be defined as the intentional interaction with uncertainty.
This essay has been submitted by a law student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
Commercial Bank of Australia v Amadio. Twelve years ago, Portugal eliminated criminal penalties for drug users. Since then, those caught with small amounts of marijuana, cocaine or heroin go unindicted and possession is a misdemeanor.
More than 1, engineers and architects have expressed significant criticism of the 9/11 Commission Report. Several even allege government complicity in the terrible acts of 9/ Crime & Punishment Essay Titles Below is a collection of IELTS essay questions for the topic of crime and punishment.
These questions have been written based on common issues in IELTS and some have been reported by students in their test.