An introduction to the global divide between rich and poor

In fact, this network which we may identify as the Round Table Groups, has no aversion to cooperating with the Communists, or any other groups, and frequently does so. Morgan and Company or its local branches in Boston, Philadelphia, and Cleveland.

An introduction to the global divide between rich and poor

Some sections of this work are incomplete but have been posted as is. They will be updated and queries resolved as time permits.

Author and Page information

Apart from files not yet complete, distribution maps, some figures and habitat photographs are the main items to be added. A question mark may appear in the text appended to items that need to be checked by me. Numerous queries have led me to post incomplete material.

This work has been carried out over a period of 45 years, starting in I arrived in Iran in January and, in that year, 7 articles were published strictly on Iranian fishes 3 on parasites, 1 on pesticides, 1 on fisheries, 1 describing the blind white fish and 1 a summary of the latter; 2 were in Farsi.

A generation later inover articles on Iranian fishes appeared, along with hundreds of relevant works from neighbouring countries, works on the aquatic environment in Iran and works on taxonomy and systematics relevant to Iran.

The study of fishes is now a very active field within Iran and the Middle East and much of the newer literature is easily available on-line see Bibliography. Accordingly, is the last year that this work was updated although some systematic and taxonomic studies may still be incorporated.

The Published Accounts see above were updated versions from content in this website. Acknowledgements A wide range of people in Iran, Canada and elsewhere have assisted me in this work over more than 40 years. Inevitably, I will have forgotten some names, which I regret.

Some people I never met formally, an example being the gentleman nattily dressed in suit by a stream near Kazerun who jumped fully-clothed into the water to help me catch fish. Numerous other Iranians have assisted my studies and this website is dedicated to them. The staff at the Department of Biology, Shiraz then Pahlavi University helped me in numerous ways to collect fishes during a three-year tenure as an Associate Professor.

Bahman Kholdebarin was Chairman of the Department for much of my time in Iran and it is only through his support that I was able to make the collections that enabled this work to be done.

The Research Council of Pahlavi University funded field trips and is gratefully acknowledged for this support.

Collections were made with the help of drivers and assistants and their efforts over long periods in the field are gratefully acknowledged. Various other people assisted too and are mentioned below under the Pahlavi University name.

The staff in the CMN library searched out all the numerous and varied papers on fishes in Iran and neighbouring countries without which this synthesis would not be possible.

One paper took six years to locate and arrived in the form of a microfilm from the Soviet Union. I am particularly indebted to Victor Adomaitis who kindly volunteered for the unrewarding task of scanning hundreds of images and converting them to thumbnails and usable files.

Mollie MacCormac carried on this task, making a wide variety of images available for the website. In particular, I should like to acknowledge the support and encouragement of the late Dr.

McAllister, Curator of Fishes, CMN over many years, in terms of training and education, both formal and informal, of financial and moral support, and in practical terms in the ways and means of collecting, cataloguing, identifying, and studying fishes, and of getting things done.

Co-authors are evident in the Bibliography and their added expertise made several studies possible.

An introduction to the global divide between rich and poor

Various people and their organisations are mentioned below separately for their particular assistance; these are in alphabetical order. Asghar Abdoli collected numerous specimens including exotics and allowed me to incorporate these discoveries in several papers.

Behnke, Colorado State University, Fort Collins is gratefully acknowledged for his extensive loans of, and access to, collections he and associates made.

These are listed more fully in the Materials and Methods. Bianco, University of Naples, allowed me free access to materials, including types, in his possession at the University of Naples and his hospitality is acknowledged. Petersburg are thanked especially for their hospitality, access to collections, data analyses and interpretations on Iranian fishes, as well as co-authorship.

Bond, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis allowed extensive loans of fishes from Iran under his care and these materials are listed in the Material and Methods see Contents.

Staff at the Fish Section, British Museum Natural History now the Natural History Museum have loaned materials and hosted visits on numerous occasions; their help has been much appreciated for the extensive collections are a required study to understand the Iranian fauna.

R Esmaeili, Shiraz University has contributed many items of information, DNA data, specimens and photographs, and has collaborated on a variety of studies on Iranian fishes. Louis is acknowledged for his complementary studies on tooth-carps using molecular techniques.

An introduction to the global divide between rich and poor

Kinzelbach kindly appointed me to the Advisory Board of the journal Zoology in the Middle East which has given me an interesting and valuable overview of studies in that region. Yazdan Keivany translated abstracts of his manuscript reports and first posted my bibliography of Iranian freshwater fishes on the internet - a stimulus to this work!

Bahram Kiabi, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources is thanked for various items of information on fishes, translations and gifts of Farsi articles and many interesting fish specimens.

His efforts at facilitating collegiality and his students have formed the core of modern university researchers on the fishes of Iran.More and more these smartphones are now becoming affordable and accessible to the urban poor and the rural populations of the country. This is helping close the digital divide.

Purpose. This work is meant to provide a guide to the freshwater fishes of Iran. There are no modern keys to this fauna, some available books are incomplete or cursory treatments or outdated, and the detailed and diverse scientific literature is widely scattered in time, languages and journals.

INCONVENIENT TRUTHS "You can either be informed and be your own rulers, or you can be ignorant and have someone else, who is not ignorant, rule over you.". A digital divide is an economic and social inequality with regard to access to, use of, or impact of information and communication technologies (ICT).

The divide within countries (such as the digital divide in the United States) may refer to inequalities between individuals, households, businesses, or geographic areas, usually at different socioeconomic levels or other demographic categories. 1 1 Introduction to Global Issues VINAY BHARGAVA M ore than at any other time in history, the future of humankind is being shaped by issues that are beyond any one nation’s ability.

The income gap between rich and poor has increased steadily in line with economic progress, but only recently, with unemployment and austerity measures hitting the poor and “squeezed middle” the most, has public resentment against inequality reached a peak.

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